8 However they can present with hearing loss, tinnitus, symptoms of cranial nerve compression, subarachnoid haemorrhage, thromboembolic ischaemic symptoms, bilateral carotid-cavernous
fistulae, seizures or life threatening haemorrhage.
Management of 100 consecutive direct carotid-cavernous
fistulas: results of treatment with detachable balloons.
Cranial nerve injury, cerebrovascular damage, brain cortex injury (frontal, temporal and even occipital lobes), intracranial haemorrhage, carotid-cavernous
fistula and false aneurysm are also possible.
SCH is reported to be related to some other etiologies as; febrile systemic infections10-13 malaria14, carotid-cavernous
fistula15 and delivery.
Orbital magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed left proptosis and cranial venous MR angiography demonstrated multiple tortuous and enlarged vessels near the left carotid artery and the left cavernous sinus resembling carotid-cavernous
fistula, and enlarged superior ophthalmic vein.
Endovascular techniques for treatment of carotid-cavernous
fistulae: Clinical and angiographic results in patients treated by the Neuro-radiology Group at a third-level University Hospital in Medellin, Colombia, 1995-2007
The etiology of CS syndrome is neoplasm, aneurysm, thrombosis, carotid-cavernous
fistula, pituitary apoplexy, granulomatous inflammation, and infection (4), (8).
Angiography demonstrated dissections, pseudoaneurysms, thromboses and carotid-cavernous
The most common vascular disorders are the vascular anomalies, including intraparenchymal and dural arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), arteriovenous fistulae (AVF), vein of Galen malformations, aneurysms, carotid-cavernous
fistulae (CCF), angiomas, and Maya-Maya disease (2).
sinus fistulae are rare, but serious, vascular anomalies which may develop following traumatic injury to the skull base.
Additionally, having the ability to conduct dynamic CT angiography over a one-minute sequence allows for the detection of a range of neurological diseases such as brain tumors, carotid-cavernous
fistulas, patients with trauma or an altered mental state and other subtle abnormalities, such as rapid blood flow.