Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators. Pain Management Nursing, 1 (1), 13-21.
Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (Write a 0 if the behavior was not observed, and a 1 if the behavior occurred even briefly during activity or rest.) With Movement Rest 1.
These descriptors are from Feldt's Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators
 and include vocal complaints that express pain, such as moaning, groaning, grunting, crying, gasping; facial grimacing or wincing; bracing and holding onto nearby equipment; restlessness; rubbing; and verbal remarks such as "ouch" or "stop, that hurts." Another publication for informal caregivers, The Family Caregiver Alliance newsletter, documents one family caregiver's experience interacting with professionals.
The Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (Feldt, 2000b), which is designed to measure pain in elders with dementia, was modified from the University of Alabama Birmingham Pain Behavior Scale (Richards, Nepomuceno, Riles, & Suer, 1982).
Therefore, an observational tool that identifies pain behaviors only when the patient is at rest or during transfers, such as the Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators, will not be adequate for measuring pain from a musculoskeletal source, such as osteoarthritis.