CHRED

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CHREDChemical Reduction
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Figure 7 shows the discharge capacity versus cycle number of Co-based electrodes prepared by chemical reduction with and without CTAB and carbon-coating heat treatment at 700[degrees]C for 1h.
Table 1 presents the results obtained in the synthesis of nanoparticles obtained by wet chemical reduction method and Figure 1 shows the XRD diffractograms of copper nanoparticles identified as R1, R3, and R4 and synthesized under different PAAm/Cu molar ratios: 2.00, 0.11, and 0.46, respectively.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by chemical reduction of aqueous solution of chloroauric acid, HAu[Cl.sub.4] (0.04 M, 16000 ppm, POCH, Poland) [19].
Compared to other carbon materials such as CNT, the production of graphene by the chemical reduction method requires less energy [9].
Caption: FIGURE 4: Raman spectra of GO layers (without reduction, black line; with chemical reduction, red line; with UV reduction, blue line; and with thermal reduction, green line).
Preparation of thiol-functionalized gold nanoparticles by chemical reduction of soluble Au(1)-thiolates has been reported byCorbierre and Lennox [61].
Janssens, "Influence of the borohydride concentration on the composition of the amorphous Fe-B alloy produced by chemical reduction of synthetic, nano-sized iron oxide particles--part II: goethite," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol.
Copper nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized, for example, by y-radiolysis [7], laser irradiation [8], thermal decomposition [9, 10], thiol-induced reduction in supercritical water [11], reduction in microemulsions [12], and reverse micelles [13], vapor deposition [14], sonoelectrochemical [15], flame spray [16], and chemical reduction [17-19] methods.
Other authors have used molar concentrations of 0.01 M AgN[O.sub.3] or less to obtain nanoparticles by chemical reduction in aqueous solution, resulting in maximum productivities lower than 0.1 g per 100 g of solution [16, 19, 26-28].
The process employs chemical reduction to clean castings, which are submerged in a salt bath as a negative charge is applied.
Should the criteria concern the proportion of costs made up by electricity or specific areas of business activity or processes which require huge amounts of electricity, for example?The definition of "energy products used as fuel" still needs to be clarified since in its 1997 proposal, the European Commission exempted energy products from duty where they are not used as fuels, along with fuel and energy used in chemical reduction, electrolysis and metallurgical processes.
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