About Chronic Low Back Pain
and Degenerative Disc Disease
However, if patients fail to manage the pain experience, negative pain beliefs may become stronger, and they may eventually develop an extremely pessimistic pain belief and pain experience, which may cause emotional stress and catastrophic conditions.25-27 There are limited studies on pain beliefs, and the majority of them have mainly focussed on chronic low back pain
.10,11,26,27 A study10 investigated how pain beliefs could be altered by multidisciplinary pain management in patients with chronic low back pain
Vitamin D supplementation in patients with chronic low back pain
: an open label, single arm clinical trial.
This randomized-controlled trial (RCT) included a total of 75 patients with chronic low back pain
admitted to the outpatient clinic of the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of Gaziosmanpasa Education and Research Hospital between December 2016 and March 2017.
"With the addition of this study, we now have two level 1 clinical studies that have shown efficacy and safety of this innovative treatment for chronic low back pain
," Nguyen said.
They define acute low back pain as lasting less than four weeks, sub-acute low back pain as lasting 4-12 weeks, and chronic low back pain
as lasting more than 12 weeks.
Conclusion: The mean bone mineral density at spine was found to be lower in patients with chronic low back pain
. It was significantly lower in older patients and those with severe low back pain.
Non-pharmacological methods including a variety of physical therapy agents are the cornerstone of management of chronic low back pain
. Therapeutic ultrasound (US) is among the commonly used physical modalities for treating soft tissue injuries.
Many researchers stated that one of the hallmark characteristics of non-specific chronic low back pain
is the weakness of the spinal musclar chain (Ito et al., 1996; McKeon et al., 2006).
In 2007, Chou, et al, conducted a systematic review to help the American Pain Society and the American College of Physicians prepare a clinical practice guideline; they concluded that spinal manipulation was the most effective non-pharmacological treatment for acute and chronic low back pain
. (7) In 2008, Lawrence, et al, conducted a systematic review and concluded that as much or more evidence exists for the use of spinal manipulation to reduce symptoms and improve function in patients with chronic LBP as for use in acute and sub-acute LBP (8) Finally, in 2010, Bronfort et al, conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials and concluded that spinal manipulation/mobilization is effective in adults for: acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain
Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain
with lumbar stabilization exercises.