The Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease
(GOLD) recommends influenza vaccination at evidence A level due to its ability to reduce hospitalization and mortality rates, and pneumococcal vaccination at evidence B level to prevent society-based pneumonia (3).
Impairment of pulmonary-artery endothelium-dependent relaxation in chronic obstructive lung disease
is not due to dysfunction of endothelial cell membrane receptors nor to L-arginine deficiency.
Source: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
, 2014 FIGURE 3.
* Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
. Guidelines for professionals in the diagnosis and treatment of COPD.
COPD was diagnosed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
(GOLD) guidelines (1) and classified according to the GOLD criteria as: GOLD I (mild): [FEV.sub.1] (forced expiratory volume in 1 s)/FVC (forced vital capacity) <70%, [FEV.sub.1] [greater than or equal to]80% predicted; GOLD II (moderate): [FEV.sub.1]/FVC <70%, 50% [less than or equal to] [FEV.sub.1] <80% predicted, GOLD III (severe): [FEV.sub.1]/FVC <70%, 30% [less than or equal to] [FEV.sub.1] <50% predicted; GOLD IV (very severe): [FEV.sub.1]/FVC <70%, [FEV.sub.1] <30% predicted.
Spirometry revealed severe stage of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
(class III); electrocardiography was suggestive of P pulmonale.
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
Global Strategy for Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease.
An estimated 90 percent of all deaths from chronic obstructive lung disease
are caused by smoking.
Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive lung disease
, diarrhoea and HIV/AIDS have remained the top major killers during the past decade.
The head of the national heart and internal diseases hospital, Jamila Imanakulova, said patient Bakhadyr Suleimanov was brought to the hospital with relapse of chronic obstructive lung disease
. He receives medical treatment from this disease at this hospital for a long time already.
According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
(GOLD) program, COPD is defined as a disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible (Pauwels et al 2001).
A report by BLF Wales - How Healthy are Welsh Lungs was published ahead of global Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
Day on Wednesday - reveals a total of 95 people, equivalent to 19%, were referred to their GP with a lung function reading which was below what it should be.