Two-Year Intraocular Delivery of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor
by Encapsulated Cell Technology Implants in Patients with Chronic Retinal Degenerative Diseases.
Varon, "Corticospinal motor neurons in the adult rat: degeneration after intracortical axotomy and protection by ciliary neurotrophic factor
(CNTF)," Experimental Neurology, vol.
Pahan, "Up-regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor
in astrocytes by aspirin; Implications for remyelination in multiple sclerosis," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Lissilaa et al., "The cytokines cardiotrophin-like cytokine/cytokine-like factor-1 (CLC/CLF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor
(CNTF) differ in their receptor specificities," Cytokine, vol.
(1996) Ciliary neurotrophic factor
induces down-regulation of its receptor and desensitization of signal transduction pathways in vivo: non-equivalence with pharmacological activity.
Synthesis and localization of ciliary neurotrophic factor
in the sciatic nerve of the adult rat after lesion and during regeneration.
Chemotactic and vasoactive factors that stimulate growth and healing (3) Human growth hormone Epidermal growth factor Platelet-derived growth factor Fibroblast growth factor Transforming growth factor Nerve growth factor Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Ciliary neurotrophic factor
Insulin-like growth factor 1 Tumor necrosis factor Interleukins Interferons Keratinocyte growth factor
CHAT and TH expression are controlled through separate transcriptional promoter pathways, comprising cAMP-dependent processes (adenylyl cyclase, protein kinase A, CREB, AP-1) as well as trophic factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor
, repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron restrictive silencer factor, and bone morphogenetic protein-9 (Lewis-Tuffin et al.
Meanwhile, ciliary neurotrophic factor
, insulin-like growth factor-1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are in human clinical trials for treating ALS.
At least two are in phase III, placebo-controlled trials: Axokine, or ciliary neurotrophic factor
(Regeneron Pharmaceuticals), and Rimonabant, a cannabinoid receptor agonist (Sanofi-Sythelabo).
In phase II obesity trials, 170 subjects were treated with a slightly modified version of the original ciliary neurotrophic factor
. At what is now considered the optimal dose (1 mg/kg) patients lost an average of 10 pounds, or 4% of their body weight, over 12 weeks of treatment, compared with a slight gain with placebo.
The neurotrophic factors that are covered include brain derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin 3, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 4/5, glial cell derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor
, leukemia inhibitory factor, transforming growth factors and platelet-derived neurotrophic factor.