CLRTAPConvention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (UNECE-CLRTAP)
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To begin with simple numbers, by 2009 the Rotterdam Convention covered 40 chemicals, the CLRTAP covered 16 chemicals, and the Stockholm Convention covered 21 chemicals (Selin 2010, 15).
Hence, similar to CLRTAP, South Asian region also needs to develop a network to monitor the nature and type of pollutants and their quantification of annual import and export, followed by appropriate methods of assessment in relation to damage to human health, forests, and various agroecosystems.
This avoids the pitfalls of the first approach by not trying to solve all substantial problems at once and has been used successfully in CLRTAP on transboundary air pollution and the regime on ozone-depleting substances; efforts to deal with the loss of biological diversity and (less successfully) climate change follow a similar pattern.
(15) With respect to the chemical life cycle, the CLRTAP POPs protocol primarily covers the production and use of hazardous pesticides and industrial chemicals and sets emission standards for byproducts.
The first CLRTAP initiative on POPs was taken in the summer of 1989 based on concerns with high Arctic environmental concentration levels and risks for local human populations.
The CLRTAP regulatory system for POPs is designed as a two-track approach.
Stockpiles of Annex I substances shall be destroyed or disposed of in an "environmentally sound manner, taking into account relevant subregional, regional and global regimes governing the management of hazardous wastes and their disposal, in particular the Basel Convention." (17) The reference to regimes other than Basel is included because not all CLRTAP parties participated in the Basel convention, and the terms "waste," "disposal," and "environmentally sound" should be interpreted in a manner consistent with the use of those terms in the Basel convention.
Unlike the CLRTAP POPs protocol, the Rotterdam Prior Informed Consent (PIG) convention, which under UNEP and FAO auspices was signed by sixty-one countries in September 1998 and as of March 2002 has twenty ratifications, does not directly regulate the production and use of hazardous chemicals but rather regulates their export and import.