Japanese supplementary school, bilingual education, Japanese heritage learners, mathematics, cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP)
In contrast, the term cognitive academic language proficiency refers to academically related language competence (Baker, 2011).
Second, since they were no longer exposed to first-language academic environments they were unable to further develop the L1 conceptual knowledge necessary to facilitate their L2 cognitive academic language proficiency
(i.e., CALP) acquisition (Roessingh & Kover, 2003).
In addition, the social, i.e., basic interpersonal communication skills (or BICS) and language subject area uses (i.e., cognitive academic language proficiency
skills or CALPS), negations and cooperative transactions are potential elements for miscommunication.
Students fluent in Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills in English perhaps need to be reminded that accurate use of scientific terminology is important; paraphrasing is good for clarification but still they need to focus on formal aspects of discourse, that is, an accurate Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
. on the contrary, more timid students perhaps need to be encouraged to linger on the concepts and say things "in their own words".
According to Cummins (1996), decontextualized, highly Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
that is used in reading and writing is different from Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills English used for daily conversation.
For English language learners (ELLS) with limited first language schooling in the home country, it usually takes several years to demonstrate cognitive academic language proficiency
. For ELL students to achieve educationally, they need to reduce that time barrier.
First, a distinction must be made between basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency
The youngest arrivals (aged 6-11) struggled the most in developing cognitive academic language proficiency
(CALP) despite their apparent advantage in having acquired native-like proficiency with the phonological and syntactic features of English and the assumed advantage that a greater length of residence (LOR) in Canada might accrue in acculturating to community and school life.
The language used in social communication, basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS), is different from, and not sufficient for, the demands of college study, which require a more academic form of language, labeled cognitive academic language proficiency
Research also suggests there are two types of language proficiency (basic interpersonal communication skills and cognitive academic language proficiency
Topics discussed include different paths to bilingualism; emphasis on the whole child; observing the child's behavior in natural communicative settings; cognitive academic language proficiency
; the importance of high expectations; speech skills; a cost-benefit perspective; residual hearing; critical periods and spoken language; critical periods and sign language; and the importance of natural language.