n Mean (S.D.) MSNQ-P 103 16.65 (12.02) MSNQ-P retest 58 14.26 (10.36) MSNQ-I 60 13.92 (11.29) CFQ 51 12.30 (6.72) BDI 51 10.78 (6.73) GVLTdel 51 11.96 (2.57) EPST 51 45.44 (11.69) SCWT 51 Word 88.00 (15.44) Color 65.92 (13.15) Color-Word 40.56 (10.17) VFT 51 Semantic 53.24 (9.07) Phonemic 28.57 (8.97) DS 51 Total 12.69 (3.08) Forwards 6.90 (1.66) Backwards 5.78 (1.99) EDSS=Expanded Disability Status Scale, MSNQ-P=MSNQ patient form, MSNQ-I=MSNQ informant form, CFQ=Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, BDI=Beck Depression Inventory, GVLTdel=Greek Verbal Learning Test delayed recall trial, SCWT=Stroop Color-Word Test
, EPST=Experimental Processing Speed Test, VFT=Verbal Fluency Test, and DS=Digit Span.
The Stroop Color-Word Test
: Influence of age, sex, and education; and normative data for a large sample across the adult age range.
The other findings suggest no correlation between white matter integrity deficits expressed as FA values and scores of cognitive function tests, although 2 previous studies (13,15) of geriatric depression reported significant correlations between FA or FA values and scores of the Trail Making Test or Stroop Color-Word Test
. This could be attributed to the age difference or other possible non-linear correlation.
Abbreviations: BDI-IA = Beck Depression Inventory-Amended; CI = confidence interval; COWAT = Controlled Oral Word Association Test; CVLT-II = California Verbal Learning Test, 2nd edition; MS = multiple sclerosis; MSQLI = MS Quality of Life Inventory; PASAT = Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test; PDQ = Perceived Deficits Questionnaire; QOL = quality of life; SD = standard deviation; SDMT = Symbol Digit Modalities Test; Stroop = Stroop color-word test
; UFOV = useful field of view; VA = Department of Veterans Affairs.
Stroop interference: Aging effects assessed with the Stroop Color-Word Test
. Experimental Aging Research, 19, 209-224.
(2) Neurocognition evaluation: on the second day of enrollment, the Clock Drawing Test, Trail Marking Test, Digit Span Test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Verbal Fluency Test, Semantic Similarity Test and Stroop Color-Word Test were conducted, and the scores were calculated.
There were significant differences between two groups in Trail Marking Test, the forward Digit Span Test, the backward Digit Span Test, the total score of Digit Span Test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test's number of responses, number of sorting, number of correct responses and the rate of correct responses, Verbal Fluency Test, Semantic Similarity Test and the reaction time of Stroop Color-Word Test. The scores of the patient group were higher than those of the control group in Trail Marking Test, the number of responses of Wisconsin Carding Sorting Test and the reaction time of Stroop Color-Word Test.
Secondary endpoints included opposition/defiant (O/D) subscale of IOWA, Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Coding Test, Stroop Color-word Test
, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), academic performance on teacher-rated school examinations, and safety at week 12 compared with baseline.
Thus, the dorsal region tends to be active in cognitive tasks, such as the Stroop color-word Test
, and inhibited in emotional tasks, such as the Stroop emotional Test, whereas the opposite pattern tends to occur with the rostro-ventral region.
The participants were invited to complete a batery of neuropsychological tests, including the Stroop Color-Word Test
, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the WISC, and finally, the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB).
The battery, which included the Stroop Color-Word Test
, the Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making tests A and B, and Controlled Oral Word Association, was designed to assess memory, problem solving, attention / concentration, speed of information processing, new learning, and reaction time.
 The Stroop Color-Word Test
was used to assess executive functioning by testing the accuracy and speed of reading words in different colors.