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Resource Boundaries: Clear boundaries that separate a specific common-pool resource from a larger social-ecological system are present.
common-pool resources, are "types of economic goods, independent of
Among the conditions that favor the development of self-governing common-pool resource institutions is social capital, defined as "the shared knowledge, understandings, norms, rules and expectations about patterns of interactions that groups of individuals bring to a recurrent activity" (Ostrom: 2000, p.
According to this approach, information and knowledge are socially managed as common-pool resources due to their inherent properties of nonsubtractability and relative nonexcludability.
Although land suitable for strawberry production is privately held, it may be seen as a common-pool resource. And to avoid a tragedy of the commons, it must be managed with a degree of collective action.
Some scarce resources require larger-scale management, even public management--a fact that has been recognized in the common law of property." (25) She is referring here to the way the American courts "recognized what were called 'public rights,' particularly in resources that are not easily turned into private property--historically, air, water resources, and fish and wildlife stocks--because the management of such diffuse resources is also essential in a functioning economic order of free enterprise." (26) Rose concludes that "[l]ike private rights, public rights have an economic justification: They maintain unified control over large-scale, common-pool resources." (27)
In response to the call for such empirical research this paper provides the analysis of the socio-ecological performance of a common-pool resource management regime in the city-region of Vigo, in Galicia in the northwestern part of Spain.
The presence of a common-pool resource subject to diverse and competing demands clearly creates a legal challenge, but it need not generate takings claims.
* Rules regarding the appropriation of common-pool resources
Democratic governance is the key attribute for successful management of common-pool resources. Grazing associations and fishery cooperatives are two general types of local democratic governance that are having a positive impact.