The 1980 convention is commonly referred to as the UN Conventional Weapons Convention, or NCCW (to distinguish it from the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention, referred to as the CWC).
1523 [hereinafter Conventional Weapons Convention of 1980] (containing four protocols of which the United States ratified two: Protocol I (non-detectable fragments--a non-existent weapon), and Protocol II (mines, booby traps and other devises).
For a discussion of the UN Conventional Weapons Convention and its three initial protocols, see id.
Due to the concern of many States that Protocol II had not gone far enough, and in light of the continued widespread use of the mines in the years following adoption of the Conventional Weapons Convention mines protocol, the problem was readdressed at a Review Conference in 1995.
Although the 1996 Review Conference for the Conventional Weapons Convention resulted in amendment of the 1980 mines protocol, a number of States remained dissatisfied with anything short of a total prohibition on anti-personnel mines.
The following year the Act was expanded to cover various violations of the 1907 Hague Regulations, common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions (dealing with non-international armed conflict), and, when ratified, Protocol III (mines) to the Conventional Weapons Convention, as amended in 1996.
The 1981 Conventional Weapons Convention requires that mines may be directed only at military objectives.
The conventional wisdom regarding the application of humanitarian law, including the Conventional Weapons Convention, continues to hold this type of state action outside the political jurisdiction of the international community.
Senator Leahy points out that the previous administrations' failure to seek ratification of the Conventional Weapons Convention was linked to a dispute with Congress over ratification of two earlier international agreements regarding the law of war: Protocols I and II to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, which the United States signed in 1977.