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In signal processing, cross-correlation is a measure of similarity between two waveforms as a function of a varying time-lag applied to one of them.
Though numerous classes of optical flow methods exist, the two most common approaches involve the gradient-based analysis of a conserved image signal [43] and the cross-correlation of image features [40].
Then the autocorrelation function of receiving signal [R.sub.X]([tau]) will be got through correlation processing, and the cross-correlation function [R.sub.X/Q]([tau]) will be got by correlation processing between the auxiliary signal and received signal, which is shown in formulas (3) and (4), respectively, where C(n) is the baseband code, SN(n) is the square wave, and [tri.sub.x]([tau]) is the correlation peak whose position is x.
Then, the statistical results of autocorrelation, spectral density, and cross-correlation are presented with explanations of each parameter.
Using the available offline input and output data, compute the time delay using the cross-correlation method.
Mathematically, the cross-correlation function is defined as
The cross-correlation analysis on Ap with MS incidence (1938-1985) did not show significant correlation at lags of 0 to 5 years.
(b) Examples of the peak cross-correlation coefficients (CCFs) over time after cross-correlating the EMG signals shown in (a).
Another significant correlation issues between VT (voice_timbre) and VR (speech_ speed), (r=0.604).We further note two other multiple and significant cross-correlation clusters about the derivative variables.
The Magnitude (Figure 12), Shape (Figure 13) and Phase Shifts (Figure 14) were the average coefficients from the cross-correlation analysis of all measurement channels for each cross-correlation analysis case.
To investigate the appearances of the codes, we extended the maximum cross-correlation in the next frame [[THETA].sub.N](C) to [[THETA].sub.N](C, C') from code C to C'.
Well-known families of linear spreading sequences, such as m-sequences, Kasami, Gold, and Walsh codes, traditionally employed as channelization codes, exhibit non-zero and sometime non negligible auto- and cross-correlation out-of-phase values, which limit the achievable performance, in asynchronous or in quasi-synchronous scenarios [11].