Maternal anxiety was measured using the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index
, which provided a specific indicator of somatic anxiety via responses to questions including, "Are you troubled by dizziness or shortness of breath?" "Do you experience a tingling or prickling sensation in your body, arms, or legs?" "Have you felt that you may faint, feel sick, or have indigestion?" and "Do you experience extra sweating?" The response options to each question were "never," "sometimes," "often," or "very often."