in Vibrio cholerae O1, Kolkata, India.
Conventional biotyping methods and a combination of MAMA-and conventional- PCRs were used for classifying the strains into prototype El Tor, hybrid, or El Tor variant biotypes, based on their ctxB
and rstR genes (21-23).
Nucleotide sequencing of ctxB
showed that the translated sequences of V.
alleles have been identified among 01 V.
One of the reasons could be higher CT production by El Tor variant strains possessing classical ctxB
gene allele than typical El Tor (35).
cholerae strains that we studied from the 2009-2010 outbreak in Kenya had the classical ctxB
allele, which is consistent with a clonal origin.
cholerae O1 strains over a period of more than a decade established that hybrid CTX prophage with El Tor rstR and classical ctxB
replaced El Tor type completely since 1995 in Kolkata, India (25).
Emergence and genetic diversity of El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1 that possess classical biotype ctxB
among travel-associated cases of cholera in Japan.
allele variant (ctxB
-7) of the Haiti strain (and its genetic relatives) was first observed among isolates from a cholera outbreak in Orissa, India, in 2007 (29), but the ctxB
-7 allele has since also been observed in isolates from southern Asia and more recently from western Africa (8,30).
The sequencing results for ctxB
and tcpA and PCR results for rstR and the VC2346 gene are shown in Table 5.
Epidemics of severe cholera caused by El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa possessing the ctxB
gene of the classical biotype in Orissa, India.
According to the UN panel report, "a careful analysis of the MLVA [multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis] results and the ctxB
gene indicated that the strains isolated in Haiti and Nepal during 2009 were a perfect match.