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CuCNCopper Cyanide
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The desired transformations were investigated using the conditions reported by Konig [26], by coupling the substrates 1 and 1a with the inorganic cyano group using CuCN surprisingly, contrary to the results revealed by Konig, a marked improvement in the isolated yields (90 and 85 %) were observed following the 18 and 20 h of irradiation under 7 W fluorescent bulb (Table 2, entries 2, 4).
The mild deviation from the illustrated results is anticipated due to minor variation in reaction parameters particularly the use of CuCN instead of malononitrile that appeared to be a superior nucleophile in DMF on prolong irradiation.