For any constant [alpha] [member of] (0,1), the DBDE needs [OMEGA]([q.sup.-[alpha]n]) running time to find a-approximation solution in the worst case.
Suppose that the DBDE starts at the local optimum (01 ...
Two types of knapsack problems, that is, 0-1 knapsack and multidimensional knapsack problems, are used in the following experimental studies to extensively investigate the performance of the proposed DBDE algorithm.
A suite of twenty randomly generated 0-1 knapsack problems is used to verify the efficacy of DBDE. An algorithm for generating the instances is available from http://www.diku.dk/~pisinger/generatorx.
Table 5 presents the mean maximum profit achieved by DBDE and other five competitive algorithms over 30 runs on each 0-1 knapsack instance.
Apart from the above analysis, one may come up with a question: what are the differences of computational cost between DBDE and other competitive algorithms on 0-1 knapsack problems?
In contrast, point sources releasing DBDE have resulted in sediment with concentrations as high as 5 mg/kg.
Whether these are due to debromination of BDE 209, as suggested by the studies involving exposure of trout to a commercial DBDE mixture (Kierkegaard et al.
The major components of OBDE and DBDE (i.e., the highly brominated congeners) are found at much lower concentrations because of extremely limited volatility.
PentaBDE is more toxic than OBDE, whereas DBDE is essentially nontoxic to invertebrates.
The most extensive data set exists for DBDE, with studies ranging from acute to chronic laboratory studies.
DBDE has historically been shown to be poorly absorbed after either oral or dermal exposure (Hughes et al.