DCCASDistrict of Columbia Comprehensive Assessment System
DCCASDry Cargo Carrier Attach System
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Quantification of the DCCAs and the flavonoid luteolin-7-O-[beta]-D-glucuronide was carried out by internal standardisation with cynarin (Sequoia Research Products, Oxford, UK; purity > 96%).
2, HPLC analysis of the fraction prepared by eluting the Achillea extract with 20% (v/v) methanol from C18-cartridges revealed a total amount of 48.8% DCCAs (7.9% 3,4-DCCA, 24.2% 3,5-DCCA and 16.7% 4,5-DCCA) and 3.4% luteolin-7-[beta]-D-O-glucuronide besides other minor compounds that could not be identified because of their small amount in the fraction.
As shown previously for the phenolic constituents from artichoke (Matuschowski, 1998), the DCCAs are the main choleretic active principles.
Candidates for the observed choleretic effect of the Achillea fraction are the above-mentioned DCCAs, amounting to 48.8% in the tested fraction, due to their structural similarity to the choleretic active DCCAs from C.
Due to their polar structure, mono- and DCCAs are extracted almost quantitatively into infusions and tinctures, the traditional application forms of yarrow in traditional European medicine.
Moreover, a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study revealed an increase in choleresis up to 51.5% after oral intake of a standardised artichoke extract containing 0.38% caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, therefrom 0.16% DCCAs and 0.06% cynarin which corresponds to a daily intake of 7mg caffeoylquinic acids in total and 1.1 mg cynarin, respectively (Kirchhoff et al., 1994).