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The effect of various temperatures (30, 40, 50, 60,70, and 80[degrees] C) on the extraction efficiency of DDFPs was investigated by maintaining the other two factors (extraction time and water-to-raw material ratio) constant at 60 min and 30 mL/g, respectively.
The yields of the DDFPs extracted by different water-to-raw material ratios (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 mL/g) are shown in Figure 1(c) while maintaining an extraction temperature of 60[degrees]C and an extraction time of 60 min.
The optimum conditions for the yield of the DDFPs are as follows: an extraction temperature of 63.13[degrees]C, an extraction time of 53.10 min, and a water-to-raw material ratio of 22.11 mL/g.
Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Three Fractions from DDFPs. To further select the polysaccharide fraction with the highest antioxidant activity, three fractions (DDFPs30, DDFPs50, and DDFPs70) were prepared by the stepwise ethanol concentration precipitation method.
To better explore the structural difference between three fractions (DDFPs30, DDFPs50, and DDFPs70) from DDFPs, HPSEC-MALLS was used to determine the molecular weight ([M.sub.w]), size distribution, root mean square (RMS), and slope exponent of a conformation plot (Table 3).
Our result showed that the DDFPs had similar monosaccharide composition.
In this study, RSM was applied for the first time to determine the optimal conditions for the extraction of DDFPs. The optimum conditions for the yield of DDFPs are as follows: an extraction temperature of 63.13[degrees]C, an extraction time of 53.10 min, and a water-to-raw material ratio of 22.11 mL/g.
Caption: Figure 1: Effects of the extraction temperature (a), extraction time (b), and water-to-material ratio (c) on yield of DDFPs.
Caption: Figure 2: Response surface plots (a, b, and c) and contour plots (d, e, and f) showing the effect of time, temperature, and water-to-material ratio on yield of DDFPs.
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