Both men had been aware of the potential of dakwah for gradually Islamizing Indonesian society from the bottom up; Sungkar had after all been the chairman of the DDII Central Java branch while Bashir had majored in dakwah at the Al-Irsyad Islamic university in Solo (Behrend 2003).
In Southeast Asia, Islamist political parties such as PAS in Malaysia as well as social organizations like the aforementioned DDII, Abu Bakar Bashir's Majelis Mujahidin Indonesia (MMI), and Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI), generally propagate such viewpoints.
Amongst Indonesian university students exposed to neo-Salafiyyah ideological currents through, for instance, DDII dakwah activities on campus, there is "growing acceptance" of the notion that the Islamic world is under attack by Western forces such as the United States, and crucially, "must be defended--with violence if necessary" (Collins 2003).
During the New Order period, smaller movements and organizations arose, which appealed to different social groups of the urban Muslim community, such as the Gerakan Pembaharuan Islam (Movement for the Reform of Islam) and the DDII.
16) The most prominent dakwah institution active among the second category of Muslim urbanites is the DDII, whose main vehicle for transmitting its ideas has been Media Dakwah, a periodical with short articles accessible to a wide Muslim audience, distributed mainly at mosques on the occasion of Friday prayers (Muzakki 2005:167-72).
In the opinion of Feillard and Madinier (2006:34-5, 107, 168), this is an important factor in the development of more narrow-minded and even--and this is the core subject of their book--'radical' attitudes within the DDII and various more recent and more 'radical' Islamic movements in Indonesia.
Saudi Arabian aid to Indonesian dakwah organizations concentrated on the DDII and other Muslim organizations with conservative religious attitudes.
Available publications offer no details on the amount of Saudi Arabian financial support for the DDII.
Organizations such as KISDI, DDII and FPI (Front for the Defence of Islam) have backed Laskar Jihad's activities with rallies, demonstrations, and endorsements in media publications.
39) In tapping into such sources of support, Laskar Jihad is drawing on the efforts of organizations such as DDII and KISDI, both of which have long cultivated followings on university campuses and in pesantren for their campaigns agains t pluralism and Western political values, such as liberal democracy and human rights.
Groups representing conservative modernist Islam, such as the DDII, continued to maintain their core following among sections of the lower-middle and working classes and networks in pesantren and universities.
Philip Hatch-Barnwell, unpublished journal account of working in Maluku with Kompak, a Muslim relief organization affiliated with DDII, September to November 2000.