-- The DDRRR programme should above all be a structure headed by a political institution and the civil administration concerned, namely the Congolese state and rebel de facto authorities, as is the case in Sierra Leone.
-- Given that the negative forces are still involved in military operations under the FAC command, MONUC does not explain the mechanisms or means through which it will achieve the registration, the determination of status and selection of combatants for the DDRRR. Furthermore, the UN model is not based on any of the two options outlined above (military or political) which could lead to the disarmament of non-state forces in the eastern DRC.
However, since last November the Security Council has given the green light to the third phase of MONUC missions of which the DDRRR provided for in the Lusaka Peace Agreement is the main component.
On 9 November 2001, the Security Council, through Resolution 1376 (2001), gave its support to the launching of the third phase of MONUC, of which the main component is the DDRRR programme, which is based on the voluntary disarmament of the armed groups operating in eastern Congo.
THE DDRRR PROGRAMME: IDEAL AND POLITICAL MANIPULATION
This third phase was officially implemented through Security Council Resolution 1376 (2001), main component of which is the programme known as Disarmament, Demobilization, Repatriation, Reinstallation and Reintegration (DDRRR).
This article proposes a critical analysis of the DDRRR and of the limits of the two other available options (military and political) for disarming the non-state armed groups in the eastern DRC, on the basis of the dynamics between the military alliances on the ground, of the Lusaka Peace Agreement and of the mandate of MONUC.
This article presents a critical analysis of the Disarmament, Demobilization, Repatriation, Reinstallation and Reintegration (DDRRR) programme and of the two other available options (military and political).
Despite the good intentions of MONUC and other international organs, the DDRRR programme cannot be applied to the Great Lakes region at present.
It should also be underscored that the peace agreement requested that the UN changes the mandate (from observation to peacekeeping) of its mission (MONUC) in the DRC, and accelerate the implementation of its third phase centred on DDRRR. However, the UN Security Council has not accepted this request and the beginning of the third phase of the mission remains, up to now, conditional.
But, contrary to what happened in Sierra Leone, on 19 December 2001 (27) the World Bank organised a meeting aimed at mobilising funds to finance the operations linked to Phase Ill of MONUC, namely DDRRR. This programme does not identify the organs in the countries concerned (namely Burundi, Uganda, the DRC and Rwanda) that the World Bank, which administers this new Trust Fund, will work with to finance the different DDRRR activities.