Moreover, despite the fact that a contingent behavioral reward system often results in positive behavior change, these changes are often not enduring (due to extinction once the reward system is removed; Hardman, Horne & Lowe, 2011) and are not nearly as healthy, due to the generally negative association between extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation (Deci
, Koestner, & Ryan, 1999).
According to Ryan and Deci
(2000), intrinsically motivated individuals are inspired.
The final category of Deci
and Ryan's (2000; 2008) three motivational types is amotivation.
Ryan and Deci
(Ryan and Deci
, 2017) proposed, however, that to understand human motivation the whole motivational process (i.e., basic psychological needs, motivational regulations), needs to be involved in the analysis when investigating possible cognitive, affective or behavioural outcomes produced by motivation.
These different types of motivation can be arranged into a continuum of self-determination that specifies the corresponding regulatory styles used, and possible transitions between them (Deci
& Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Connell, 1989).
The applicability of the self-determination theory was proved by some scientific evidence for the optimal functionality in a variety of contexts such as work environment (e.g., Deci
, Ryan, Gagne, Leone, Usunov and Kornazheva, 2001), parenting (e.g., Assor, Roth, and Deci
, 2004), education (e.g., Deci
, Vallerand, Pelletier and Ryan, 1991) and health care (e.g., Williams and Deci
Perceptions are also more positive under such conditions, and there is greater engagement with activities (Deci
, Eghrari, Patrick & Leone, 1994; Ryan & Deci
Thus, we are concerned about potential harms, ranging from wasting money to experiencing negative unintended effects (Moller, Ryan, and Deci
To understand motivation in CrossFit participation, Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci
& Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci
, 2000) is an appropriate and relevant theoretical foundation.