Scholars will advance our understanding of DEPD by parsing the conditions that lead to these combinations, along with their compatibility with the design ideal.
Do policy mixes and integration principles apply to DEPD and its contexts in the way they did for analog design?
Those on the DEPD vanguard are undoubtedly confronting similar challenges already.
The role of government and non-government actors in DEPD
But precisely what role are citizens and non-governmental organizations called to play in DEPD, and what are the implications of participatory policy design for democracy writ large?
Framed as a data-driven, supremely instrumental and rational form of social problem solving, DEPD echoes the instrumental rationality and "conscious" manipulation of design(s) emblematic of early design thinking (Linder and Peters 1990; Bason 2014).