In any case, econometric estimates have been replicated, excluding observations corresponding to extreme values of DEVD.
In order to shed additional light on the mechanisms relating DEVD with MI, CY, and LEFT, variable DEVD is broken down into two new variables: deviation in expenditures (DEVE) and deviation in revenues (DEVR): DEVD = DEVE - DEVR
Figure 1 show the distributions of variables DEVD, DEBE, and DEVR .
The synthetic peptidyl inhibitors for pan-caspase (Z-VAD-FMK; VAD), and caspase-3 (Z-DEVD-FMK; DEVD) were purchased from Calbiochem (Darmstadt, Germany).
Application of the pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK (VAD), or the peptidyl caspase-3 inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (DEVD), significantly prevented SKOV-3 and A2780CP cells from EVO-induced cell death according to an MTT assay (Fig.
Assays were performed on 96-well microtitre plates by incubating 10 [micro]L protein cell lysate per sample in 80 [micro]L reaction buffer containing 10 [micro]L substrate (Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD
)p-nitroaniline (pNA) for caspase-3, and Leu-Glu-His-Asp (LEHD)-pNA for caspase-9, 2mM).
To rule out the possibility that caspase-7, which shares similar substrate specificity with caspase-3, is compensatory activated in [Casp3.sup.-/-][ApoE.sup.-/-] BMDM and [Casp3.sup.-/-][ApoE.sup.-/-] VSMCs, a fluorometric DEVD
substrate-based caspase activity assay was performed.
Caspase-3/CPP32 colorimetric assay kit (BioVision Incorporated, CA, USA) was used to investigate caspase-3 activation in treated cells based on the cleavage of Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD