It is possible that the decrease in DHAP
content influences changes in the contents of pentose phosphate pathway metabolites such as S7P and ribulose 5-phosphate (Ru5P).
The toxicological effect of DHAP
was transient and there was drastic reduction in the aberrations observed after 48h.
"Partner Services Evaluation Field Guide." DHAP
Total IgG reduction was detected most frequently in patients receiving cisplatin, cytarabine, dexamethasone (DHAP
) followed by adriamycin (doxorubicin), bleomycin, and vinblastine (ABVD) before transplantation (p=0.024).
TAGs are synthesized by a complex pathway (Figure 2), which initially requires the following: (i) the activation of saturated and/or unsaturated FAs to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (FA-CoA) esters by an acylCoA synthetase (ACS) activity and (ii) the phosphorylation of glycerol by glycerol kinase (GLYK), which is found in the liver, or the cytosolic synthesis of glycerol-3-phosphate from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP
) produced during glycolysis by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) enzyme, which mainly occurs in the liver and adipose tissues.
Glycerol-3-phosphate is made from a glycolytic metabolite, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP
), the breakdown of one molecule of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (C6) by aldolase A.
: dihydroxyacetone phosphate; SAM: S-adenosyl methionine.
All patients achieved 2-8 cycles of first-line treatment, such as R-CHOP, CHOP, and R-CHOP/CHOP-like chemotherapy; for patients with progressive disease after firstline chemotherapy, they received second-line chemotherapy, for example, IcE, Gmox, GDP, ESHAP, DICE, and DhAp
GPDH catalyzes the reversible conversion of G3P to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP
), serving as a major link between glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and lipid metabolism.
The enzymatic synthesis of MG at least includes four potential pathways in plants: (1) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) pathway: Triosephosphate (TP) isomerase (TPI) hydrolyzes G3P or DHAP
to yield MG and phosphate (Pi), this is the major source of MG formation; (2) acetol pathway: acetone monooxygenase catalyzes acetone (a metabolite of fatty acids) to acetol, the latter is converted to MG by acetol monooxygenase (AMO); (3) aminoacetone pathway: in this pathway, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) is able to convert aminoacetone (a metabolite of protein) into MG; (4) dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP
) pathway: MG can be produced from DHAP
via MG synthase (MGS) (Kaur et al., 2014a, b; Hossain et al., 2016; Singh & Dhaka, 2016; Fig.
After the first cycle of DHAP
chemotherapy (dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin), a significant response was observed, the patient became afebrile, tendency of inflammatory parameters improved, and improving overall clinical condition was seen.
She then received second line salvage therapy with dexamethasone, high dose cytarabine, and cisplatin (DHAP