Exposure to the DHOS was grouped into economic or physical exposure (Table 1).
The LGWHS found a similar pattern of association between depression and physical exposure to the DHOS (Rung et al.
It is possible that respondents already exhibited higher rates of depression before the DHOS than did their counterparts because of exposure to previous disasters such as Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
Rates begin to approach those found in the WaTCH Study as one moves closer in location and time to the DHOS.
2011), in contrast, found positive associations between the disruption of participants' lives by the DHOS and severe mental distress.
Both economic and physical exposure to the DHOS were significantly associated with increased domestic conflict in the present study.
1993b) developed for the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill and added further questions on the financial impact of the DHOS and the participant's ability to smell the oil.
The following variables were considered a priori confounders and were adjusted for in all models: age (years; continuous), household income in the year prior to the DHOS (< $20,000, $20,001-$40,000, $40,001-$60,000, > $60,000), smoking status at the time of interview (never, former, and current smoker), and race (white, black, other).
A small percentage of women worked on the DHOS clean-up activities (2.
Based on the indicators that loaded high on each factor, Factor 1 was labeled as "Physical-Environmental Exposure to the DHOS" and Factor 2 was labeled as "Economic Exposure to the DHOS.
In general, a dose-response relationship was observed between physical-environmental exposure to the DHOS and all of the physical health symptoms, where the magnitude of the estimated association increased as the level of exposure increased from low to high.
In this study, exposure to the DHOS was estimated using exploratory factor analysis, where delineations between physical and economic DHOS exposures were observed.