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DIPOLESDefense Intelligence Photoreconnaissance On-Line Exploitation System
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Conventionally, ferroelectricity has been observed in materials that are insulating or semiconducting rather than metallic, because conduction electrons in metals screen-out the static internal fields arising from the dipole moment.
The team had to prevent the dipole element from breaking along the creased line.
After obtaining dipole moments of the tip and protrusion, the calculation of the field at any point of the system is straightforward, that is, the sum of the external field (incident and reflected ones) and fields of four dipoles (two dipoles of spheres and their images in the surface).
The results of Figure 10(a) were received via simulation and show the variation of the dipoles' [V.sub.oc] versus frequency.
The analogues in the case of the dipole model of magnetization are: [mathematical expression not reproducible] are the intensities, as well as the induction of the electric and magnetic fields; and; [mathematical expression not reproducible]; [[rho].sub.e] and [[rho].sub.m] are the volume densities of the polarization electric and fictitious magnetic charges; [[rho].sup.st.sub.e] and [[rho].sup.st.sub.m] are the volume densities of external [2] electric and fictitious magnetic charges; [[epsilon].sub.0] [??] [[mu].sub.0], [[epsilon].sub.0] is the electric constant; [mathematical expression not reproducible] are the moments of electric and magnetic dipoles; [+ or -]q and [+ or -]m are the point electric and fictitious magnetic charges located in the dipoles at distance l.
To clarify this matter we perform simulations in CST Microwave Studio to calculate the electric field around the body generated by small electric dipole (8 mm length, 0.5 mm thickness) at the distance of 1 mm from the body, which represents an elementary electric source.
The [u.sub.r] results for the three single dipoles cases (radial, axial and tangential) and the three simultaneous dipoles (dilatation) (with source positions on the axis to 90[degrees] line) are best demonstrated in figure 11 using the CWD results for first quadrant signals (at 90 mm) with all the source centers off axis at 1 mm.
In this paper, the proposed structure makes a dielectric substrate that supports the microstrip line outside the parallel plate region and behind the dipole. As such, the dielectric does not contribute to radiation of the antenna [13], which causes a reduction in the antenna bandwidth and efficiency.
The C-shaped patches perform as a radiating element is loaded with a basic dipole antenna to achieve a dual band antenna is presented.
This simulation tool, designed by the authors, contains three common models (dipole small magnets, monopole small magnets, and electric monopoles) often proposed by secondary students.
However, for the case of DE we performed an exhaustive simulation to find a combination of parameters for which an optimal solution was attained in the localization of two correlated dipoles. Our results showed that the performance of SA, GA, PSO, and DE decayed as the noise increased, while SA and PSO seemed to be very sensitive to the correlation between the sources.