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The metabolism of As involves alternating reduction and methylation in which AsV is first reduced to [As.sup.III], followed by methylation to monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and MMAIII, and then methylation to dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) and DMA111.
In any case, total urinary arsenic reflects the number of arsenic ions generated from all arsenic species in the urine, including inorganic arsenic (AsIII, AsV), the tri- and pentavalent methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic [monomethylarsonite (MMAIII), dimethylarsinite (DMAIII), monomethylarsonate (MMAV), dimethylarsinate (DMAV)] and the less toxic organic arsenic compounds commonly associated with dietary exposures, particularly in seafood (mainly arsenobetaine, arsenosugars, and arsenolipids) (Caldwell et al.
Louis, MO, USA): sodium arsenite (trivalent inorganic arsenic), sodium arsenate (pentavalent inorganic arsenic), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), phenylephrine, and serotonin creatinine sulfate.