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As the DMCPS is a nonlinear system, this DP has to be solved numerically by some approximations.
From Figure 5 we can get that the DMCPS's energy loss can be classified into three categories: main motor loss, auxiliary motor loss, and coupling box loss.
In the original DP results the DMCPS needs frequent shifting to reduce the energy loss, which may influence the riding comfort, and when [alpha] = 2, the energy loss did not increase a lot but the shifting number is only 38% of the original DP result.
We can get from the table that the new rule-based strategy can reduce the DMCPS's energy loss effectively.
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