At first, functional literacy campaigns in Bamanan were organized by the governmental organization in charge of literacy, the DNAFLA
(Direction Nationale de l'Alphabetisation Fonctionnelle et de la Linguistique Appliquee); then in the second half of the 1970s the CMDT (Compagnie Malienne pour le Developpement des Textiles) became involved.
Attention then turned to the potential of small media and community media: participatory videos (Global Village in Bangladesh, Belkins in Tanzania, DNAFLA
in Mali, CEPAC in Peru, CENDIT in India), audio cassette forums, and traditional media (theater, puppet shows, stories, etc.).