An important portion of current lending support has been in the form of Development Policy Financing (DPF
), which has backed important reforms client countries have been implementing to help diversify sources of growth and buffer against future shocks.
Various options can be explored, such as close coupling a compact SCR coated DPF
with the engine, or installing on the chassis a high-efficiency SCR catalyst, with low light-off temperature, and DPF
complemented with advanced insulation on the entire system to retain the exhaust temperature.
The RF-DPF uses RF signals to provide a direct measure of the DPF
Figure 11 shows the values of the DPFs
from [DPF.sub.1] to [DPF.sub.4], calculated as described in the section System Performance, for the period when the experimental test campaign was carried out during heating mode.
She pointed out that Cummins was able to draw from a deep pool of prior experience when it came to diesel engine performance, having produced 1 million exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)-equipped and 650,000 diesel particulate filter (DPF
)-equipped engines and 350,000 SCR systems, along with 3 million Variable Geometry Turbochargers (VGTs).
Mobil Delvac 1 ESP 5W-40 is recommended for use in all super high performance diesel applications, including modern low emission engine designs with EGR and aftertreatment systems with DPFs
Models involving various DPFs
may occur in emergency situations.
Existing technologies and strategies exist to abate emissions, including "use of cleaner fuels and direct [PM.sub.2.5] reduction technologies such as fabric filters (baghouses), electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), and DPFs
." (237) While biomass burning provides additional challenges, options do exist, (238) such as banning open field burning of agricultural waste.
Cars fitted with the more powerful 2.0HDi 138hp DPFS
unit, with the Auto EGS transmission, benefit from a 1.7 per cent improvement in fuel economy and a 2g/km reduction in emissions.
This initiative will also enable UK scientists to tap into MRC's recently announced Developmental Pathway Funding Scheme (DPFS
) and collaborate with a drug discovery capability whilst retaining existing IP ownership.
The new supermini has been designed to be more fuel efficient than the current C3, with two HDi DPFS
engines producing 90bhp and 110bhp to complement the three petrol engines developed in conjunction with BMW.
The company explained that the new DPFs
combine the advantages of the existing Mann+Hummel CRT and SMF-AR diesel particulate filters into one product.