It is expected that the soot oxidation temperature of the DPMF depends on the contact area between the soot and the membrane.
Figure 16 shows the concentrations of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide that were produced by the soot oxidation on the DPMF (without Pt) and the DPMF (with Pt) in a TPO (rising temperature) experiment.
In both cases of DPMF without and with Pt, as the amount of SiC nanoparticles increases, the oxidation temperature of soot in the mixture decreases.
Measurement of Adsorbed Oxygen on the Surface of the Membrane Layer of the DPMF [6, 7, 8]
In past section, the apparent soot oxidation rate on DPMF (with Pt) in low temperature range (under 500[degrees]C) was higher than the case of w/o Pt.
In the case of this DPMF, precious metal particles are fixed by an oxide layer of SiC.
Expected Reaction Model of Soot Oxidation on the DPMF
From these experimental results, we expect that the reaction of soot oxidation on the DPMF. The apparent activation energies of soot oxidation on DPMF (w/o and with Pt) were same.
The authors use the same approach to price the implicit performance guarantees provided by the vendors of VA and DPMF products.
From a modeling point of view, it is important to note that if the VA (DPMF) policyowner survives until time t = K, he or she receives a payment equal to [S.sub.K], even if it is less than the guaranteed minimum death benefit.
Motivated by the concept of put-call parity, the VA (or DPMF) can either be viewed as a zero-coupon bond with a face value of [e.sup.gT] together with a call option struck at [e.sup.gT] or it can be treated as a position in the underlying security together with a put option struck at [e.sup.gT].
One can think of the continuous look-back as corresponding to a VA (or DPMF) whose basis is artificially reestablished each time a new high is achieved by selling and then repurchasing the contract at the new level.