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Twaddle et al., "Direct regulation of diurnal Drd3 expression and cocaine reward by NPAS2," Biological Psychiatry, vol.
The genes are the dopamine transporter 1 (DAT1) gene, the three D2-like dopamine receptor (DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4) genes and the monoamine oxidase-A gene.
Self-regulation therapy to reproduce drug effects: A suggestion technique to change personality and DRD3 gene expression.
Polymorphisms TaqI A of the DRD2, Ball of the DRD3, exon Ill repeat of the DRD4, and 3' UTR VNTR of the DAT: association with childhood ADHD in male African-Caribbean cocaine dependents?
According to this model, low expression or impaired function of DRD1 and DRD5 increases the level of PA (through reduced inhibitory signalling), while high expression and intact function of DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 have inhibitory effects on PA (through increased stimulatory transmission).
Additionally, the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) is located on chromo some 13 and is believed to mediate the therapeutic actions of antipsychotic drugs.
Antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and the Ser9Gly polymorphism in the DRD3 gene: a meta-analysis.
The substrate of personality has also been studied by the experimental evaluation of the glutamate in blood as a consequence of a single dose of methylphenidate (Amigo et al., 2009a; Mico, Caselles, Amigo, Cotoli, & Sanz, 2013) and, by the experimental evaluation of the DRD3 gene expression, as a consequence of a suggestion technique (Amigo, Caselles, & Mico, 2013).
 A previous study found that dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) polymorphism is highly associated with impulsivity.
 Their team also genotyped 384 SNPs within 45 candidate genes related to nicotine dependence in a Han Chinese sample by employing the Golden Gate genotyping assay, and confirmed the previous findings that DRD2, DRD3, DDC, CHRNB3, GABBR2 and CHRNA4 genetic variants were associated with nicotine dependence.
Also, it will be interesting for future research to consider other regulatory related genes (such as DRD2 and DRD3 for instance) to check the combined effects between activator and inhibitor genes on physiological activation and on psychological activation.
The D2-like family receptors include the DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genes.
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