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DSCAMDown Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule
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We analyzed band optical density using an image analysis system (GelPro Analyzer Version 3.0, Media Cybernetics Inc., USA) and calculated the ratio of DSCAM to b-actin optical density for estimation of DSCAM expression.
Immunohistochemistry of brain sections revealed that DSCAM is highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, granule layer of the dentate gyrus, pyramidal cell layer of Ammon's horn of the hippocampus (stratum pyramidale), thalamus, and cerebellar Purkinje cells of both WT (Figure 2A,C,E) and APP transgenic mice (Figure 2B,D,F).
DSCAM expression in the hippocampus by age and genotype
Montesinos, "NMDA-Mediated regulation of DSCAM dendritic local translation is lost in a mouse model of Down's syndrome," Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
During early development, neurons produce high levels of the proteins encoded by a gene called DSCAM as they undergo an intense period of extending and branching to connect with other neurons.
In flies, when Dscam levels stay high, branches off of the ends of their neurons grow too long and make faulty connections with neighboring neurons.
In a series of experiments outlined in the study, the researchers showed that the Dscam protein activates another protein known as Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl).
The biplots showed two associations for the cerebral nuclei: The first one included the genes DSCAM, DSCR4, DSCR8 and SIM2; while the second included ERG and RUNX (Fig.
The expression of integrins and DSCAM is not determined in the kidney.
Stein, "DSCAM is a netrin receptor that collaborates with DCC in mediating turning responses to netrin-1," Cell, vol.
On the basis of the gene's DNA sequence and structure, the investigators also suspected that the gene for the fly protein, by convention dubbed Dscam, would undergo alternative splicing.
To address this possibility, the scientists randomly isolated 50 mRNA strands from the gene in the developing fly brain and determined that these mRNAs would have produced 49 versions of Dscam. That suggests that the fly brain indeed uses all of the protein's possible forms, Zipursky's team concludes.