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In the energy conversion process of DSSCs an important source of energy loss, it is the load recombination or dark current, that may occur for two possible factors: the first one may occur with oxidized dye molecules and the second one with redox species in the electrolyte .
One of the most popular dyes used in the manufacturing of DSSCs is N719 (cis-diisothiocyanato-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato) ruthenium (II) bis(tetrabutylammonium)); this is an artificial dye with a central ruthenium atom in its molecular structure and is capable of absorbing photons below 750 nm .
In the present work, two new organic sensitizers containing 4,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazole (BPI) and Bodipy as an electron donor and a conjugated bridge, respectively, along with different additional linker groups (phenylene for BPI-P and thienyl for BPI-T) incorporated into the bridge to further expand the absorption spectra and improve the solubility were synthesized and applied in DSSCs. 6,9-Dimethoxy-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole (DPI) is structurally analogous to the BPI unit except for an additional single C-C bond that links two phenyl rings.
anode for DSSC. The thin layers were prepared on Fluorine doped Tin
This indicates that C1 dye could possibly have a greater efficiency when applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC).
Over the years, tremendous efforts have been made to explore natural and organic dye as DSSCs sensitizer due to being nontoxic and environmentally friendly, low cost, and easy modification for functionalization.
Figure 5 shows the photocurrent versus photovoltage curves of the DSSCs based on gel electrolyte PAA-g-PEG (a) and PAA-g-PEG/PANI (b).
Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are photoelectrochemical, alternative energy source devices that convert light energy into electricity, based on the photosensitization of wide-bandgap metal oxide semiconductors such as Ti[O.sub.2].
On the basis of this, we set out to investigate and discuss the photophysical and electrochemical properties of a new-type monoanthracenyl functionalized phenanthroline heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex in relation to its potential use as a photosensitizer for application in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and other optoelectronic devices.
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted an ever-increasing attention since reported by O'Regan and Gratzel in 1991  for its low-cost, environmental friendliness, and potential high conversion efficiency, which was considered to be a strong contender of the next-generation solar cells in the near future.
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received considerable attention due to low manufacturing cost and simple preparation technique over conventional solar cells.
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