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Nonworking; Full-/Part-time/Nonworking; Wife's Occupational Status, and the Bartos scheme), plus the new DSWI scheme, detailed below.
In contrast to extant models, the proposed DSWI scheme is based on occupation and work involvement for both spouses, not just that of the wife (as in WWI), or husband (as in social class).
The first task was to assess whether DSWI categories differed significantly across major demographic covariates.
Next, the performance of DSWI model is compared to that of alternative WWI models and the substantive attitudinal and consumption differences are discussed in detail.
More importantly, the proposed DSWI scheme clearly outperformed all other models on most variable sets in terms of multivariate variance explained and was equivalent to the best WWI model in terms of univariate significance counts for wives' and husbands' attitudes.
The DSWI scheme does not perform as strongly as more parsimonious wives' WWI models for wives' shopping behavior, perhaps a result of consuming larger degrees of freedom and reducing between-group variance.
In sum, the DSWI scheme seems remarkably robust and able to capture meaningful differences in attitudes and values, food and beverage consumption, and dollar values of major durable acquisitions--differences that could not be isolated by earlier WWI models.
For this reason, the DSWI scheme is able to identify patterns of food and beverage consumption differences that could not be isolated by alternative WWI models or by econometric models using macro-level data.
Table 5 presents mean Likert scores for the six shopping behavior items, univariate and multivariate test statistics, as well as a priori t-test comparison significance levels for the DSWI scheme.
Contrary to prior econometric studies, the DSWI scheme dramatically outperformed extant WWI models and isolated significant differences in dollar values of major durable acquisitions and home entertainment devices and furniture, even after controlling for income.
This research developed and demonstrated that the DSWI model isolated significant differences in husbands' and wives' gender role norms, self-fulfillment aspirations, traditional family values, and work and time pressures.
While very high status DSWI couples held more modern gender role norms, self-fulfillment aspirations, and nontraditional values, they did not experience the greatest work/time pressures--probably because they were more established and successful, had already attained career success, even though they were more likely to have young children.
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