Past-year self-reported collision involvement was examined in three groups (no DUIA or DUIC, either DUIA or DUIC, both DUIA and DUIC).
Drivers reporting neither DUIA nor DUIC (91.3% of the sample) had the lowest prevalence of collisions (6.7%).
No previous studies have examined collision risk among people who self-report both DUIA and DUIC. The current data suggest that those who report both behaviours could be at a particularly high risk for collision.
Percentage of respondents involved in collisions by substance(s) used while driving (CAMH Monitor, 2002-2010) Neither DUIA nor DUIC 6.7% DUIA or DUIC 9.6% DUIA and DUIC 30.5% Vertical bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
Early DUIC epidemiologic studies did not provide strong evidence of cannabis causality, because individuals with only nonpsychoactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) in the blood were included in cannabis-exposed groups (15).
Examining cannabis consumption rather than DUIC has generally produced nonsignificant or lower odds ratios (ORs) than targeting DUIC.
Colorado, which legalized medical marijuana in 2000, has seen increased numbers of DUIC cases and is considering a 5-ng/mL blood THC per se law.
Males were selected as a target group, since statistics show that men engage more often in dangerous driving and DUIC compared to women.
Moreover, 30 participants admitted to using cannabis, and 80 percent of those users reported at least one incidence of DUIC in the previous 12 months.
"Our study found that men with self-reported DUIC tend to be associated with an increased risk of being involved in a car accident," said lead author Isabelle Richer, a PhD candidate at the Universite de Montreal's Department of Psychology
Both the case studies (Forsyth, 1999; Duic
et al., 2003; Forsyth, 2005;), the partial equilibrium (Kemfert, 2003), the general equilibrium (Sahlen and Aronsson, 2006), and the strategic approaches (Matsuhashi, Chang and Ishitani, 1999; Millock, 2002) suggest that there is no one policy that addresses similarly the issues countries face, but rather, each country or partnership that collaborates in the CDM setting needs a specific solution to allow technology and its transfer.
(12.) Kraljic, M, Mandic, KZ, Duic
, LJ, "Inhibition of Steel Corrosion by Polyaniline Coatings." Corros.