The effects of VAS, VAO, and DVAS on capsaicin-induced coughing mice are showed in Fig.
The antitussive effects of VAS, VAO, and DVAS in guinea pigs are showed in Fig.
96-fold after treatment with DVAS at dosages of 5,15, and 45 mg/kg (P < 0.
The bronchodilating effects of VAS, VAO, and DVAS in guinea pigs are showed in Fig.
2010) and are lacking in quinazoline alkaloids, namely, VAS, DVAS, and VAO.
In all three antitussive models, the VAS, VAO, and DVAS significantly inhibited coughing frequency and prolonged the cough latency period in animals in a dose-dependent manner.
In the bronchodilating test, VAS, VAO, and DVAS significantly prolonged the pre-convulsive times in guinea pigs and showed potent bronchodilating effects.
In conclusion, results of pharmacological evaluation of antitussive, expectorant, and bronchodilating effects confirmed that VAS, VAO, and DVAS were active ingredients of the crude alkaloids extracted from APP.