Notes on Phalura: An Unknown Dardic
Language of Chitral.
Neueve deutsche Beitrage zu Gsckiehte und Kultur Pakistans (Bonn: Schriftenveihe des Deutsch - Pakistanischen-Forums, 1993), pp.38-49; Dshoj Josiforna Eddman, The Dardic
and Nuristani Languages (Moskan: Nauka Publishing House, 1983); Gerard Fussman, Atlas linguistique des parles Dardes et Kafirs (Paris:Publications de Ecole Francaised'
Nevertheless, lest the identical name should be coincidental, one can assume that there was a common ethnic substrate, which may have been Scythian (Sakean) in the beginning, (68) but may have been overlaid with a Pamirian (Dardic
and/or Burusho) population.
Falling in the category of Dardic
, a sub-group of Indo-Aryan, Kalami is also known as Diri and Dirwali.
Being a speaker of a Dardic
language in Gilgit-Baltistan, I feel intellectual and existential affinity with Zubair's views and plans regarding language rights and preservation.
Moreover, an observation concerning New Indo-Aryan made by Jules Bloch (1965: 69) should be stressed: "the modern future in -h- [...] is widely distributed, even outside the areas in which sibilants normally open." Indeed, according to the survey by Colin Masica (1991: 206f.), among the New Indo-Aryan languages the change MI s (< OI s, s, s) > h is observed 1.) in Sinhalese-Maldivian; 2) in some languages of the northwestern zone, i.e., in Sindhi, Lahnda dialects, and, among the Dardic
languages, sometimes in Kashmiri; 3) in some languages situated in the western part of the central zone, i.e., in North Gujarati, Western Rajasthani (S.
The texts are in the Birir dialect of Kalashamon, the language of the Kalasha, a North-West-Indo-Aryan, or Dardic
Torwali is a Dardic
language of the Indo-Aryan family, mainly spoken in the Bahrain and Chail areas of district Swat in northern Pakistan.
Sixteen major modern ("New") Indo-Aryan languages are thus described, plus briefer accounts of a number of minor Northwestern languages under the rubric of "Dardic
." In addition, there are three chapters treating earlier stages ("Old," "Middle") of Indo-Aryan, namely Sanskrit, Asokan [= early] Prakrit and Pali, and later ["Literary"] Prakrit and Apabhramsa, as well as a chapter on writing systems (a complicated matter with at least eight scripts in contemporary use, not to mention earlier varieties) and one on sociolinguistics.
Tumer also clarified that the "Dardic
" elements in Romani have been borrowed into early Romani after its speakers had left their original home and reached the north-west of South Asia where they stayed for several hundred years before finally leaving the subcontinent.
CDIAL 12331 sarabha- 'kind of deer' AV; Kati suru, and I-A forms in Dardic
, Sindhi, Assamese for a wild goat probably represent an etymon not derived from a verb base.
These words look like loan formations after a Dardic
model, compare Indus Kohistani sis-lut and Phalura sisa-luto both 'bare-headed' (second element < OIA *lutta/luttha 'defective' ; also in Shina luto, Burushaski loto 'barhauptig, entblosst, schamlos').