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References in periodicals archive ?
Characterization of the resistance mechanisms to diazinon, parathion and diazoxon in the organophosphorus-resistant SKA strain of houseflies (Musca domestica L.).
Paraoxon and diazoxon (Chem Service) were prepared as stocks, 200 mmol/L in methanol and acetonitrile, respectively, and stored at -80 [degrees]C.
Paraoxon and diazoxon stock solution concentrations were verified by HPLC analysis before use.
Santerre, "Effects of diazinon and diazoxon on the lymphoproliferation rate of splenocytes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): the immunosuppresive effect could involve an increase in acetylcholine levels," Fish & Shellfish Immunology, vol.
However, that study did not take into consideration the fact that the R alloform of PON 1 has somewhat better catalytic efficiency for diazoxon than the Q alloform both in vitro and in vivo (Li et al.
The team determined PON1 functional genotypes--RR, QR, or QQ--by measuring rates of hydrolysis of paraoxon and diazoxon. They also analyzed arylesterase activity (another measure of PON 1 activity), levels of cotinine (a biomarker of smoking, which can affect PON1 levels), and C-reactive protein (a biomarker of inflammation associated with greater risk of CVD).
Forty-four percent of black subjects had higher in vitro rates of paraoxon hydrolysis and lower rates of diazoxon hydrolysis, consistent with the RR genotype that has been hypothesized to increase the risk of CVD.
Plotting the rates of diazoxon hydrolysis [diazoxonase (DZOase)] versus paraoxon hydrolysis (POase) (i.e., DZOase/POase ratio) separates individuals into three functional genotypes of PON1 activity: [PON1.sub.192QQ] [PON1.sub.192QR], and [PON1.sub.192RR] (Richter and Furlong 1999).
To characterize the functional genotype distribution (as assessed by DZOase/POase ratios) and activity levels of PON1 as contributors to the higher CVD in southern populations, in the present study we investigated PON1 activity levels with three substrates (paraoxon, diazoxon, and phenyl acetate) in the serum of African-American and Caucasian southerners within race, sex, and age groups.
We determined PON1 activities using three different substrates, phenyl acetate (arylesterase), paraoxon, and diazoxon, and all three activities were decreased with increasing exposure level.
Further, AREase variability primarily defines sensitivity to diazoxon exposure (Furlong et al.
In a very recent study, some newborns were 65-130 times less able to metabolize diazoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon than their mothers (Furlong et al.