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The principle of socialism is 'from each according to his ability and to each according to his deed', and its high-water mark is the dictatorship of the proletariat under which the bourgeoisie - that is the capitalists _ are suppressed and finally exterminated.
A dictatorship of the proletariat will follow to weed out remaining capitalist elements" (1848).
It does not deepen the understanding of his political thought offered by Massimo Salvadori in Karl Kautsky and the Socialist Revolution, 1880-1938 (London: New Left Books, 1979), and its discussion of the important but confusing debate after the Russian Revolution about the "dictatorship of the proletariat" in which Kautsky participated is distinctly inferior to that in Hal Draper's The "Dictatorship of the Proletariat" from Marx to Lenin (New York: Monthly Review, 1987).
It was, however, not only the result of implementing the dictatorship of the proletariat; another reason was the chronic absence of educated persons.
The year before The Coming Race was published, France had descended into chaos in the wake of the Franco-Prussian War--which witnessed the birth of the Paris Commune that inspired Karl Marx's line about the "dictatorship of the proletariat." Not for the first or last time, an Englishman would look upon an episode of political violence in France and feel compelled to speak out against the dangers of misguided utopianism.
Robson wrote, "[Mill] sees no need for, or true evidence of, a class war, and the dictatorship of the proletariat, in the workers' present condition, would be to him puerile nonsense" (276).
For example, Pravda editorials published on 14 March speak of the soviets receiving "full and complete power" (vsia polnota vlasti) as a vehicle of "dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry":
When the insurgency of 1971 broke out the Parlour Bolsheviks and the established Left, who until then used to sing the virtues of armed revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat, found themselves overtaken by a group which was relatively unknown until about 1969.
However, and this is one of the key messages of this book, radical anarchist voices, despite all political pressures, could be heard at various times: from Ba Jin's extremely pungent critique of the Marxist concept of the dictatorship of the proletariat in the 1920s, to the bold statement by the deputy-editor of the national newspaper Renmin Ribao, Wang Ruoshui, that the government and the people were politically alienated in China's socialist state of the early 1980s, to the very recent (2010) call to overcome the current autocratic system by dissident Liu Xianbin.
It constructs its social order through economic struggle between the classes in the direction of violent revolution and a dictatorship of the proletariat, to be followed by the construction of an atheistic society where ownership of all things is common.
Of course, the existence of ideological approaches that legitimize ideological agitation, violence and state terror -- such as communist ideology, which seeks to establish the dictatorship of the proletariat -- cannot be denied.
The world of Gramsci's pre-prison life was indeed 'great and terrible': the First World War, the Bolshevik Revolution, the factory councils movement in Turin, which Gramsci saw as the institutions of the dictatorship of the proletariat, the defeat of the European socialist uprisings, Mussolini's 'March on Rome' and the establishment of a fascist government in Italy in 1922.