Renzulli's three-ring model, which describes gifted behavior as an intersection of above-average ability, creativity, and task commitment; Francoys Gagne's Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent
, which describes the development of talents from natural abilities through a process that is influenced by environmental and intrapersonal catalysts; and the 1989 Jacob Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Act, which has provided a federal mandate for gifted programming.
Another theoretical milestone was Gagne's (1995, 2000) development of the Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent
In a case study which analysed talent development in a musically gifted adolescent, Ho and Chong (2008) used Gagne's (2003) Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent
, a model separating definitions of talent and inherent giftedness.
Examples of well-known models are the Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent
(Gagne, 2003), the Schoolwide Enrichment Model (Renzulli & Reis, 1985), the Talent Search Model (Stanley & Benbow, 1982), and the Integrated Curriculum Model (VanTassel-Baska, 1998).
Gagne's (2003) Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent
explains giftedness using five separate elements: natural abilities (top 10% of age peers), intrapersonal catalysts, developmental process, environmental catalysts, and chance interacting (positively or negatively) to produce a talent or skill (top 10% of age peers).
The present research used Gagne's Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent
(DMGT, 2003) as a model, which groups a wide range of variable categories and encompasses a comprehensive list of causal factors into an interactive model of talent development.