We also investigated the area for cache sign, drag marks, scat, and searched shrubs, downed woody debris, and other vegetation at the site for hairs of predators (O'Gara 1978).
At the fine scale, we modeled puma kill sites as a function of percent cover of grasses; large tree ([greater than or equal to] 15.24 cm DBH) density; small tree (<15.24 cm DBH) density, percent slope; distance to nearest road; downed woody debris; and elk security cover.
Downed woody debris
biomass.--For eight stands (three tidal, five nontidal), we used the line-intercept method (Brown, 1974) to estimate coarse woody debris (CWD) in forests.
The model highlighted that disturbances have opposite effects on downed woody debris
. Fire burns fine woody debris and leaves coarse woody debris, whereas timber harvest removes coarse woody debris, leaving fine woody debris (slash).
In the long term, snags and downed woody debris
left by the fire will benefit those same bear and bird species.
Tembec logging contractor Craig Ward took several courses that taught him about wetlands, about recognizing stick nests and moose calving sites, and about the importance of downed woody debris
. "It's not just about what trees to take and what to leave," he says.