E-GEstrogen plus Gestagen
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The United Nations Survey comes with a very clear group of definitions regarding E-G. Among them, probably the most pertinent one for this article is E-Participation, explained as the empowerment of citizens and their inclusion using online tools.
Finally, there is the political will of reform shown by the Chinese Government, in events like the 17th Congress of the CCP, where there was an emphasis on the importance of promoting scientific and democratic decision making, enhancing E-G and strengthening social administration and public service (Wang, 2008, p.
This kind of episodes helps to promote the use of internet between people and make citizens more aware of the existence of E-G tools.
The bottom line is that, since economic development and reform are arguably the cornerstones of CCP's legitimacy, Chinese E-G is very related to them, and most of E-G's efforts are focused on ICT infrastructure, technology, internet access demands, industry and economy information, since all of them help the country to be more competitive and get closer to developed global leaders.
By looking at the dates and times of the proposals concerning E-G, the first thing noticeable is that they all are very new and just in a process of adjustment and trial.
As Wang says "China has established its E-G promotion agencies at various levels, but with different titles, functions and responsibilities" (2008, p.
However, this shows a contradiction between some of the intentions of the government through E-G (like giving people more access to government procedures) and what really happens, since some high ranked officials do not want to give away a portion of their power over information.
Even though the first two are considerably high, the weakest points are in the third and forth ones, meaning that there is still a lot to do regarding actual connection between Government and citizens, and that implementation and application of E-G in China is not going the "ideal" way.
Based on 502 surveys filled in by students of the China National School of Administration in 23 provinces, the investigation concluded that among all the completed E-G projects: items for public service accounted less than 3 percent, items for decision making were less than 8 percent, investment in software was less than 30 percent and the rate of hardware usage in some departments was less than 5 percent.
Therefore the country seems to need a scientific and complete E-G project performance evaluation system to follow up the investment already made.
According to the United Nations E-Government Survey released in 2010 (which studies 192 countries again), China's world E-G development ranking fell from the 65th to the 72nd spot and logically its E-G index decreased as well: it went from 0.5017 in 2008 to 0.4700 in 2010.
Not surprisingly, South Korea obtained the highest E-G development index value (0.8785) of the world, and more Asian countries were on the top 20 of the list, including Singapore in the 11th place (0.7476), Bahrain in the 13th (0.7363) and Japan in the 17th (0.7152).