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Meanwhile, EAAL were higher in laying birds compared to broilers because layers are reared for a long time.
Caecetomized rooster: Several methods have been used to estimate ileal EAAL. The classical methods, including the regression method, the use of nitrogen-free diet (NFD), and the fasted cecectomized rooster method, are the most widely used (Parsons et al.
In another study Ravindran and Hendriks, (2004) estimated that the EAAL in (70 weeks old) roosters, using the peptide alimentation method.
There are only a few reports on IEAA or EAAL in turkey poults especially at early ages through the first 3 weeks of age.
Pre-starter phase:Protein andAAs are vital nutrients that must be supplied in adequate amount and proportions to support optimal animal performance.The EAAL is higher during early age of poultry birds because the digestive tract of growing birds has adapted to tremendous changes in early life.
These procedures need to be optimized by conducting more researches in this direction, as theoutput and scientific data make more appropriate the estimation methodology of EAAL. There are differences in rearing and keeping, as well as diet formulation and ingredient selection.
Jansman et al., (2002) showed that EAAL was highly influenced by age of birds.
Dietary factors affecting EAAL: Determination of EAAL was affected by several directly and indirectly factors like dietary protein, marker index, mucin, phytate, dietary fiber, gut performance, age, species and methodology.
Many research studied have been conducted regarding the accurate estimation of endogenous losses and to minimize the EAAL, however it still in progress (Fig.
The anti-nutritive factors in the diets directly and indirectly influenced the flow of EAAL in poultry (Ravindran, 2016).
However, increasing diet utilization and nutrients absorption directly reduced the EAAL. It's documented that diet and feed formulation needs to be revised for reducing endogenous losses and increasing dietary amino acid digestibility (Onyango et al., 2009).
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