Also, cooperative enterprises in Emilia-Romagna benefit from a long historical development of the cooperative "movement" embodied in the well-established support structures and information networks of the local cooperative associations (EarIe
We also thank conference participants at EAERE 2012 in Prague, at EEA 2012 in Malaga, and at EARIE
2012 in Rome as well as the seminar audience in Grenoble and Manchester for useful discussions.
We appreciate helpful comments from Mark Armstrong, Severin Borenstein, Paul Dobson, Morten Hviid, Stephen Littlechild, John Vickers, Mike Waterson and participants at presentations at: NIE in Leicester, EARIE
in Ljubljana, the Electricity Policy Research Group in Cambridge, IOS at Atlanta, the Competition Law and Economics European Network workshop in Bonn, Norges Handelshoyskole in Bergen, DICE in Dusseldorf, and the Centre for Competition Policy, Norwich.
suite 205, Framingham Mass 01701 or the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, 9 Earie
Drive, Natick Mass 01760.
Earlier versions of this paper have been presented at the annual ESR meeting of NWO in Utrecht, the 22nd EARIE
Conference in Juan-les-Pins, the 14th EGOS Colloquium in Maastricht, and the 25th EARIE
Conference in Copenhagen.
* We thank Wissam Abdallah, Massimo Filippini, Marc Goergen, Philippe Gagnepain, Luciano Greco, Elisabetta Iossa, John Mayo, Roni Michaely, Raffaele Miniaci, Svetlana Mira, Francesco Silva and seminar participants at the 2013 EARIE
Annual Meeting in Evora, Cardiff Business School, the 2013 Annual Meeting of the SIE (Italian Economic Society) in Bologna, ETH Zurich, the 2014IO Workshop: Theory, Empirics, and Experiments in Alberobello, for comments and suggestions on an earlier version of the paper.
Hamilton, two anonymous referees, as well as Dag Morten Dalen, Kai-Uwe Kuhn, Tore Nilssen, Atle Seierstad, Lars Sorgard, Knut Sydsaeter, and seminar participants at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, the University of Oslo and the 1996 EARIE
meeting for useful comments on earlier versions of the paper.
This article also benefited from discussions with seminar and conference participants at the University of Antwerp, the University of Michigan, the EARIE
conference in Rome, the NAASE sessions in San Francisco, the HOC, and the Southern Economic Association Conference in Washington, DC.
We would like to thank the participants to the 1994 EARIE
conference in Chania, Greece, for helpful suggestions on an earlier version of this paper.
Finally, the authors also wish to acknowledge the suggestions made by the participants at 17th ATRS Conference, 5th ICEEE, 5th CRNI Conference, 39th EARIE
Conference, 14th SIET Conference, RCEA Workshop on "The economics and management of leisure, travel and tourism" and 32nd AISRe Conference.
Veugelers for their useful discussions and suggestions, as well as seminar participants at Polytechnic of Turin, University of Valencia, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Ecole Polytechnique, UECE-ISEG, University of Siena, University of Bologna, Bocconi University (seminar series on "Global Challenges"), and participants to EARIE
2011, ICEEE 2011, CONCORD 2010, SIE 2010, EARIE
2009, JEI 2009, and FIRB-RISC 2009.
We are also grateful to Inaki Aguirre, Takao Asano, Jan Bouckaert, Ken Corts, Simon Cowan, Takanori Ida, Hiroaki Ino, Domenico Menicucci, Makoto Okamura, Hajime Sugeta, and seminar and conference participants at Kwansei Gakuin University, Kyoto University, Nagoya University, Shinshu University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, University of Tokyo, 9th International Industrial Organization Conference (IIOC), Japanese Economic Association, Japan Association for Applied Economics, and the European Association for Research in Industrial Economics (EARIE
) for helpful comments.