One of the most pressing questions that exist in EBCSs concerns the dynamics that govern small pelagics, and in particular, the factors responsible in a regime shift.
In most EBCSs it has been observed that some degree of functional redundancy or overlap exists among small pelagics feeding on plankton, yet marked differences in feeding preferences have also been observed.
The more than ten-fold higher production of small pelagic fish in the Humboldt compared to other EBCSs has been attributed to anchovy feeding directly on phytoplankton (Walsh, 1981).
The Humboldt Current, Canary Current, Benguela Current, and California Current EBCSs are also considered to be individual LMEs.
In EBCSs, the width of the upwelling zone is a function of water depth, stratification, and latitude (ca.
Carr (2002) compared potential productivity in the four main EBCSs using remote sensing between September 1997 and August 1999.
2003) seems to be more of the exception than the norm among EBCSs.
High non-predatory losses (defined by low EE) are typical between producer and 1st consumer (herbivore) levels in EBCSs.
2005) point out that the South Benguelan fishery operates on a higher trophic level than in other EBCSs due to the differing diet of small pelagics, and composition of the catch.
Fortunately, the creation of predictive models for the Peruvian upwelling system has many previous examples of work in EBCSs from which to draw from.
Our understanding of the functioning of EBCSs has advanced greatly in the past 60 years since large-scale fisheries began to exploit their enormous capacity for fish production.