EBV proteins that are currently being targeted for therapeutic vaccine development are mainly LMP2A and EBNA1
The BamHI W promoter of EBV is susceptible to DNA methylation, and this alters the expression of EBNA1
Several oncogenic gene products that are capable of malignant tumor formation are induced by EBV-latent infection (bcl-2, bcl-10, c-fgr, jun/fos), and certain EBV nuclear antigens have been shown to be oncogenic in their own right (EBNA1
, EBNA2, EBNA3A, EBNA3C, LMP1).
(17) Since the JY cell line was transformed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and expressed EBNA1
nuclear antigen, we established an expression cloning system in which JY5 cells were transfected with an EBV vector-based cDNA library.
Through the combination of two synthetic peptides representing the immunodominant epitopes of EBNA1
and the viral capsid antigen VCA-p18, only a one-stop ELISA is needed for the specific detection of EBV-reactive IgA antibody in NPC patients.
Chang, "Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen 1 mimics Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1
immune evasion through central repeat domain effects on protein processing," Journal of Virology, vol.
Among the EBNAs, EBNA1
has been shown to be oncogenic.
Instead of using adenovectors to stimulate T cells, dendritic cells nucleofected with DNA plasmids encoding LMP2, EBNA1
, and BZLF1 (EBV), hexon and penton (ADV), and pp65 and IE1 (CMV) were used as antigen-presenting cells.
(18) Another study investigating genetic variability in the genes encoding the EBNA1
and BRRF2 EBV proteins did not show any specific EBV sequence variability unique to 40 subjects with MS compared with controls.
A similar phenomenon has been observed in EBNA1
peptide based vaccination against EBV associated malignancies (57).
The observation that the first lupus autoantibodies arise in the midst of a complex heteroimmune response against EBNA1
(see below) would be more consistent with their being generated from the mutated DNA template for high affinity, mature antibodies, but this prediction has also yet to be directly tested.
A viral protein called EBNA1
and a viral DNA sequence known as OriP offer an answer.