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408 surveys were received, of which 314 (76.96%) were considered valid for EBPQ scores.
The mean total EBPQ score was 5.02 out of 7 points (95% CI, 4.89-5.14).
Both academic level and professional category correlated positively and significantly with all EBPQ subscales, with the exception of the Attitude subscale and professional category.
No significant differences were detected in total EBPQ or subscale scores as a function of sex (t= 1.43; p=0.155), age (F=0.69; p=0.560), years of experience (F=1.76; p=0.155), years since qualification (F=0.92; p=0.430), professional function (t=0.17; p=0.864), workplace (F=0.80; p=0.448), number of beds at the hospital (F=2.91; p=0.057), and research courses attended (F=0.90; p=0.444).
Thus, the nurses with superior academic qualifications obtained higher scores for the total EBPQ and each subscale.
Thus, nurses who during the previous year participated in congresses, conferences, or seminars on research methodology (F=8.87; p<0.001); published scientific articles (F=4.19; p=0.006); or books/ chapters (F=3.04; p=0.036), and presented posters/papers (F=4.03; p=0.008) showed greater EBPQ competence.
Table 3 presents the Spearman rho correlations between the EBPQ subscales, overall EBP use, and perceived workplace empowerment levels from the PEI.
This study was based upon rural RNs' self-reported perceptions of EBP utilization and workplace empowerment via the EBPQ and PEI surveys.
NA = Not Available, Table 2 Means of EBPQ and PEI (N = 42) Scale Mean SD 95% CI EBP Process 4.42 1.09 (4.08, 4.76) EBP Attitude 4.05 .28 (3.97, 4.14) EBP Skill 4.67 .86 (4.40, 4.94) Overall EBP Utilization 4.44 .58 (4.26, 4.62) Workplace Empowerment 5.39 .72 (188.8.131.52) Note.
The survey tool was based on the Clinical Effectiveness and Evidence Based Practice Questionnaire (EBPQ) (Upton & Upton, 2006) and was used with permission from the authors.
Participants were provided with a questionnaire pack comprised of an information sheet, the EBPQ, a demographic data sheet and a postage paid return envelope.
The authors also thank Dominic Upton and Penelope Upton for the use of the EBPQ.
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