B, 1954; Honolulu, HI EBUC
. Roosevelt HS, HI, '72; U of Hawaii, BS, Biology, '76 U of Hawaii John Burns School of Medicine, MD, '81 MIL.
1945; Hong Kong EBUC
. San Francisco State U, BA, Accounting, '77; The American College, PA, '97, Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU), '04; Chartered Financial Consultant (ChFC), '05; Chartered Leadership Fellow (CLF) MIL.