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Further studies also confirmed that abnormal DNA methylation in the promoter regions of the gene, which provides inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes, is the most well-defined epigenetic characteristic in EBVaGC but not in EBV nonassociated GC (EBVnGC) [11, 60-66].
Increasing evidence suggests that EBV is a DNA tumor virus belonging to the human gamma-herpesvirus family, which is capable of establishing a latent infection mainly in human B lymphocytes and epithelial cells, and is associated with several human lymphoid and epithelial cell malignancies including EBVaGC [1-6].
EBVaGC is characterized by unique clinical and pathologic features including male predominance, the presence of EBV genomes and EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) in gastric carcinoma cell lines, and monoclonal proliferation of EBV-infected carcinoma cells [4, 9, 57, 104].